Also read: Also read:

Lemhi-Shoshone contributions which saved the Lewis & Clark Expedition more than once:


Camp Fortunate

Shoshone Horses

Old Toby


Special Features & Articles

Nat geo sacajaweaNational Geographic - Searching for Sacagawea


Idaho StatesmanIdaho Statesman Special Feature - Sacajawea, Her Story by Her People


nytimesNew York Times - Sacajawea's People seek a homecoming


WSU-Professor Orlan SvingenProfessor Orlan Svingen - WSU - Assisiting Lemhi-Shoshone to regain federal recognition


Trail TribesTrail Tribes - Focus on Sacagawea's descendants, traditions, customs, photos, petroglyphs & more


USNS SacagaweaSacagawea descendants to help dedicate ship - Indianz.comNAVY USNS Sacagawea (T-AKE 2)

Yellowstone - Park News/Blog - Lemhi-Shoshone's Sacajawea

The Lemhi-Shoshone Proudly supports the - Western Shoshone Defense Project

Lemhi County Historical Society & Museum

NCRSM Call To Action! - Salmon Savages High School, Salmon, ID (Current mascot issue)

Idaho BLM - Native Voices Legends of Creation and Place

Xenite - Mizuo Peck- is Sacagawea in "Night at the Museum"

Western Institute For Study of the Environment - The People Who Lived Among the Clouds

Sacajawea Center - Interpretive, Cultural, and Educational

Bringing Awareness - Metis Society of Oregon


Lemhi Pass pictured below.

At Lemhi Pass :: Thorium Deposits Country's Largest

Lemhi Pass

August 13, 1805

Lemhi-Shoshone warriors, Chief Tendoy front.Captain Lewis and members of the expedition encounter Lemhi Shoshone on the western side of Lemhi Pass, sixty mounted warriors engage this group as warning was echoed throughout the valley as intruders entered the homelands of the Lemhi- Shoshone.

August 16, 1805

Sacajawea is reunited with her people the Lemhi Shoshone, she soon recognizes her brother Chief Camehwait - emotional reunion. Sacajawea facilitates the dialogue to assist the expedition to acquire the essential horses and guide, to continue with the expedition over Lost Trail Pass.

Sacajawea continues with the expedition, the promises made by the Lewis and Clark to the Lemhi Shoshone is eminent on the expedition's success. Old Toby (Swooping Eagle) was also directed to assist the expedition to the land of the Nez Perce.

Sacajawea Shoshoni

There were at least 3 times that Lemhi-Shoshone were crucial in helping Lewis & Clark to survive and succeed:

1. Sacagawea Lewis & Clark hired her husband, Touissant Charbonneau, at Mandan as an interpreter. She saved their instruments, books, medicines, and probably THE JOURNALS THEMSELVES when her husband swamped one of the canoes and the items were floating away. She also helped them when by coincidence her brother, Cameahwait, was the chief of the Lemhi-Shoshone. She guided the expedition only a few times; in the Three Forks area of SW Montana she began to recognize landmarks such as the Beaver head landmark so Lewis & Clark knew they were in the right area to find her people the Lemhi-Shoshone.

When the expedition broke into 4 separate groups, she guided Clark and 10 others towards the Yellowstone River, July 1806. She also found plants for Lewis to record and collect for Jefferson, and she provided edible plants for the Corps to eat. She and her baby also helped the Corps show Indians that they were peaceful and were not war parties. Indian war & raiding parties did not bring women or babies.

2. The Lemhi-Shoshone near Lemhi Pass sold Lewis & Clark 28 horses. By 1805 the Lemhi-Shoshone had about 700 (barb) horses, including some mules. Some of the mules had Spanish Brands, and Meriwether Lewis observed stirrups and other articles of Spanish tack (horse gear).

It took them 11 days for the expedition led by Old Toby to cross the mountains to the Nez Perce people, they were nearly dead and starved as it was. They ultimately ate 4 or 5 of the barb horses for food. (Lewis and Clark descendants are often teased by Lemhi-Shoshone: :"...that, we hope they don't eat our horses.") :P The lack of firearms left the Lemhi-Shoshone at the mercy of the Eastern American Indians who had guns. The Lemhi-Shoshone of 1805 fought on horseback and commonly used the bow and arrow, shield, lance and poggamoggon (a weapon with a leather-covered wood handle and a thong at one end tied to a 2-pound leather-covered round stone).

3. Old Toby - If Lewis & Clark would have tried to cross the Rockies without a guide, they would have perished for certain. The Lemhi-Shoshone provided them *Old Toby and he guided them through the Bitterroot mountains. The and Agaidikas and Tukudikas who make up the Lemhi-Shoshone Tribes are considered the first residents of the upper Lemhi Valley, dating back 12,000 years or more. Archaeological research indicates that buffalo, when present were hunted throughout the 12,000 years of Indian occupancy of the Lemhi Valley.

Thorium deposits Lemhi Pass, rare-earth minerals.At Lemhi Pass :: Thorium Deposits Country's Largest

The Lemhi Pass thorium and rare-earth deposits in Idaho and Montana are the largest known in the U.S. Entitled "Mineralogy of the Lemhi Pass Thorium" the report says 100,000 tons of thorium oxide are "reasonably assured"...

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Attention Rare Earth End-Users: There Is a New American Source

DETROIT ( -- It was announced yesterday, Tuesday, February 26, 2008, in Salt Lake City, Utah, at a special session of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration’s annual national meeting entitled “Industrial Minerals: Rare Earths-Mining, Geology, and Metals” that a historically known-since 1949-very significant major high-grade hard rock source of thorium, presenting as thorium oxide rich mineral veins in Idaho and Montana, at sites in the geographic region known as the Lemhi Pass, has been “re-explored,” validated and quantitatively confirmed by geologists.

The specifics of the announcement were made in a paper jointly presented by geologists Richard Reed, a consultant with Idaho Engineering & Geology, Inc, and Dr. Virginia Gillerman of The Idaho Geological Survey, a state agency located in Boise, Idaho, as part of the special session named above. The paper was entitled: “Thorium and Rare Earths in the Lemhi Pass Region.” It contained the statement: “The claim holdings [being resurveyed] include the Last Chance vein in Montana, reportedly the largest and richest known thorium and rare earth vein in the United States.”

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GeoScience World

Thorium mineralization in the Lemhi Pass area, Lemhi County, Idaho Alfred L. Anderson The thorium mineralization in the Lemhi Pass area of southeastern Lemhi County, Idaho, is directed along simple to complex shear and fracture zones, and reopened copper and gold-quartz veins and lodes, in impure quartzitic and phyllitic rocks of the Precambrian Belt series. Some of the shear and fracture zones are more than 40 feet across and comprise broad zones of irregularly mineralized rock reaching distances to 2,000 feet in length. These zones contain notable concentrations of thorium and rare-earth elements along with considerable amounts of barium, alkali metals, calcium, iron, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon and meager amounts of columbium, uranium, and perhaps other related elements. Minerals identified so far include thorite, allanite, monazite, xenotime(?), euxenite(?), apatite, specularite, barite, alkali feldspar, calcite, biotite, phlogopite, sericite, chalcedony, and quartz. The most characteristic minerals are the thorite, specularite, barite, and quartz. The specularite and thorium-bearing minerals are intimately associated and were introduced into the deposits after the micas and in advance of the barite, feldspar, calcite, and quartz. Except for the specularite and quartz and in part the barite, feldspar, calcite, and thorite, the minerals are not distinguishable without the microscope.Some of the deposits contain several percent thoria and comparable amounts of rare-earth oxides, but the average is generally under 1 percent. The area has an appreciable reserve of lode thorium. Some of the deposits are in or are being brought into production.

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Thorium Energy, Inc.



Prepared for:Thorium Energy, Inc.Williams Investment Company19 East 200 SouthSuite 1080Salt Lake City, Utah 84111


This report summarizes thorium and rare earth vein deposits of unpatented mining claims of Thorium Energy, Inc. located in the Lemhi Pass Thorium District of Idaho and Montana. The report supersedes previous similar reports by Idaho Engineering & Geology, Inc. (IEG). It also provides an estimate of proven, indicated, and inferred reserves of thorium and total rare earth elements in the Lemhi Pass of Idaho and Montana of Thorium Energy Inc. unpatented mining claims based upon reported reserves as resources by the United State Geological Survey (USGS) and IERCO a former subsidiary company of Idaho Power Company. Thorium and rare earth deposits in the Lemhi Pass of Idaho and Montana are the largest known in the United States. The United State Geological Survey (USGS), the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the United States Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM), the Idaho Bureau of Mines & Geology (IBM&G) – Idaho Geological Survey (IGS), Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology (MBM&G) have performed a number of investigations throughout the years in greatly contributing to the current understanding of the thorium deposits in the Lemhi Pass. In addition many private individuals, and a number of companies, including Nuclear Fuels and Rare Metals Corporation, Sawyer Petroleum and Union Pacific Railroad, Dow Chemical, Tenneco Oil Company, and Idaho Power Company to name a few have also actively explored and evaluated the mineral deposits in the Pass over the years and also have greatly contributed to their understanding.

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Rare Earth Elements Could Spark Profits For Pocatello

POCATELLO, Idaho -- It's just another day in the life for Terry Andersen, going to offices, meeting people and trying to find funding for a working nuclear reactor that would create energy for southeastern Idaho. Terry's meeting with the college of technology at ISU isn't that much of a long shot. The nuclear reactor he wants to build would create electricity fueled by Thorium deposits found near Salmon. A company out of Utah, U.S. Rare Earths, Inc., wants to mine those elements. And they can be used for a lot. "The aircraft industry, the military, I think the list is endless," said ISU nuclear engineering professor Jay Kunze, Ph.D. They can also be used in computers, cell phones and batteries. Terry is hoping southeastern Idaho can capitalize on them. If the university could even produce a "small" reactor, "that would be enough to power ISU!" Terry said. Thorium reactors or not, the issue of whether mining rare earths will create jobs isn't even a question, according to the Department of Labor's regional economist Dan Cravens. "This could be huge for Idaho. We could see the location of companies in the hi-tech industries related to these elements locating here," Cravens said. Andersen says the rare earths in Salmon are potentially worth over two trillion dollars. Both Boehing and the Japanese government are interested in the deposit.

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